for Word Finding Difficulties
This section of the
WF web site presents:
- a model for a
comprehensive intervention program in word finding;
- the new Word
Finding Intervention Program, Second Edition (WFIP-2); and
- a Reference
List for further information in word finding intervention.
A Comprehensive Intervention Program
in word finding needs to be comprehensive with respect to its focus
and its application. Effectiveness is dependent on teaching and learning
of retrieval strategies, modification of both school and home communication
environments, and an understanding and self application of these strategies
and modifications by the learner. Therefore, a comprehension intervention
program in child word finding would focus on three areas (German, 1993,
Back to Top
- Retrieval Strategy Instruction
- Self Advocacy Instruction
- Word Finding Accommodations
Instruction is directed towards improving students' retrieval of
words that they know and have used before. Strategies are applied
to new vocabulary after students have indicated that they recognize
and know meanings of these words. Retrieval Strategy Instruction
focuses on providing students with mnemonic retrieval strategies
and meta linguistic reinforcement to aid word finding in single
word and discourse contexts.
- Select appropriate retrieval strategies and teach using relevant
- Apply strategies to aid retrieval of known words in sentences and
in discourse contexts.
- Rehearse target words in meaningful discourse contexts, focusing
on self application of strategies.
- Generalize Retrieval Strategy Instruction to recreation
and academic activities.
||Self Advocacy Instruction
helps learners develop their "executive system" around
their word finding abilities. Learners are taught to advocate for
themselves with regard to their retrieval skills. Specific objectives
- Helping learners become aware of their strengths and weakness
in oral retrieval through self-monitoring;
- Taking responsibility for improving their retrieval skills
- Becoming aware of the WF accommodations that they need.
Intervention also considers modification of oral and written
language demands in the learner's academic work. Learners with word
finding difficulties are often better able to express their understanding
of studied material when they do not have to use their oral or written
language to show their knowledge. Therefore, accommodations that
reduce retrieval demands inherent in learners' academic and recreational environment are recommended. The objective is to remove barriers to learning
brought about by tasks that focus on the student's ability to orally
retrieve or write information. Recommended WF Accommodations include:
- resource notebooks or cue cards to be used during exams
- open book or take home exams
- multiple choice and true-false frames in exams
- software applications
- discourse menus
- volunteer participation in oral classroom work
- teacher use of multiple choice during oral questioning in the classroom
Back to Top
Two categories of published materials are available for word
- A comprehensive word finding intervention program embracing the
3 intervetnion components discussed above. See the WFIP-2 below.
- Supplementary sources that provide vocabulary lists and various
types of rehearsal activities and exercises. These sources include
vocabulary books, games, and software that can be incorporated into
a comprehensive word finding intervention program.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757
| The second
edition of the Word Finding Intervention Program (WFIP-2)
provides professionals with theoretically linked and research based
interventions to address learners' word finding skills. Like its
predecessor, the WFIP-2 uses a three-pronged approach to word finding
intervention: retrieval strategy instruction, self advocacy instruction,
and word finding accommodations.
WFIP-2 highlights include:
Target Users: Speech and Language Pathologists and Special Education
- Retrieval strategies matched to learner's word finding error patterns;
- Lessons provided to teach mnemonic retrieval strategies and metalinguistic
reinforcement to facilitate word finding in single word and discourse
- Lessons for teaching self monitoring and self instruction;
- WF accommodations for modifying clients' language environment
to facilitate their retrieval at home, in the classroom, and at work;
- Technology accommodations for learners' written language;
- IEP goals for all lessons; and
- Thematic vocabulary lists already matched to retrieval strategies
for immediate use with school age students.
Target Learners: School-age clients and adults with word finding
References in Word Finding Intervention
Best, W., (2005). Investigation of a new intervention for children with word-finding problems, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, Vol. 40, No. 3, 279-318
Casby, M. W. (1992). An intervention approach for naming problems in
children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 1, 35-42.
German, D. J. (1992). Word-finding intervention in children and adolescents.
Topics in Language Disorders, 13(1), 33-50.
German, D.J. (2002). A phonologically based strategy to improve word-finding
abilities in children. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23, 179-192.
German, D. J. & Newman, R. S. (2004). The Impact of Lexical Factors
on Children’s Word Finding Errors. Journal of Speech, Language,
and Hearing Research. 47(3) 624-636.
German, D.J. & Schwanke, J., (November, 2003). Tele-Health: Word-Finding
Intervention Using Video Conferencing Technologies, Presentation at
the American Speech, Language and Hearing, Association (ASHA), Chicago,
Graham, K.S., Patterson, K., Pratt, K.H., and Hodges, J.R. (2001). Can repeated exposure to “forgotten” vocabulary help alleviate word-finding difficulties in semantic dementia? An illustrative case study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 11(3/4), 429-454.
Back to Top
Mastropieri, M. A., Sweda, J., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). Teacher
use of mnemonic strategy instruction, Learning Disabilities Research
and Practice, 15, 69–74.
McGregor, K. K. (1994). Use of phonological information in a word-finding
treatment for children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37,
McGregor, K. K., & Leonard, L. B. (1989). Facilitating word-finding
skills of language-impaired children. Journal of Speech and Hearing
Disorders, 54, 141-147.
McGregor, K. K., & Leonard, L. B. (1995). Intervention for word-finding
deficits in children. In M. Fey, J. Windsor and S. F. Warren, (Eds.),
Language intervention: Preschool through the elementary years, (pp.
85-106). Baltimore, MD: Brooks.
McGregor, K. K. & Windsor, J. (1996). Effects of priming on the
naming accuracy of preschoolers with word-finding deficits. Journal
of Speech And Hearing Research, 39,1048-1058.
Back to Top
Nelson, W.N. (1998). Childhood language disorders in context: Infancy
through adolescence. (2nd.ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Newman, R.S., & German, D.J. (2002). Effects of lexical factors
on lexical access among typical language-learning children and children
with word-finding difficulties. Language & Speech, 43, 285-317.
Ornstein, P. A., Naus, M. J., & Liberty, C. (1975). Rehearsal and
organizational processes in children's memory. Child Development, 76,
Scott, C.M. (2002). A fork in the road less traveled: writing intervention
based on language profiles. In In K. Butler & E. Silliman, (Eds.),
Speaking, Reading, and Writing in Children with Language Learning Disabilities.
(pp.219-237). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Stiegler, L. N; & Hoffman, P. R. (2001). Discourse-based intervention for word finding in children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 34, 277-303.
Uberti, H. Z., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2003). Keywords
make the difference! Mnemonic instruction in inclusive classrooms. Teaching
Exceptional Children, 10(3), 56–61.
Wiig, E. H., & Semel, E. M. (1976). Language disabilities in children
and adolescent. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Wiig E. H., & Semel E. M. (1984). Language assessment and intervention
for the learning disabled (rev. ed.). Columbus, Toronto, London, Sydney:
Wing, C. S. (1990). A preliminary investigation of generalization to
untrained words following two treatments of children's word-finding
problems. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 21, 151-156.
Wood, L., & Masterson, J. (1999). Use of technology to facilitate
language skills in school-age children. Seminars in Speech and Language,
2(3), 219-232. Wood, L., & Masterson, J. (1999). Use of technology
to facilitate language skills in school-age children. Seminars in Speech
and Language, 2(3), 219-232.
Wright, S. H. (1993). Teaching word-finding strategies to severely language-impaired
children. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 28, 165-175.